Civil wars are violent contestations of political power and the control of resources. In addition to producing winners and losers and destroying property and infrastructure, civil wars can produce or reinforce social, demographic, and economic changes with long-lasting effects. This article describes three interdependent socioeconomic and demographic processes created by or reinforced during the fifty-one year-old war system that has racked Colombia.
While autocrats are known for imposing strict regulations on speech, the intrinsic openness of digital communications sets up an interesting challenge. Bashar al-Assad has built an online campaign that is highly communicative, seemingly transparent, and spans multiple social media accounts, while attempting to transmit a rigid agenda. In the digital era, political communications lie increasingly on a nuanced spectrum between the fields of journalism, public relations, advertising, and propaganda. On this spectrum, Assad has built a pervasive and multifaceted communications campaign over the course of the Syrian crisis by leveraging both official and non-official media channels.